Following the gold rushes of the 1850s and under the influence of Welsh miners and settlers, annual music and arts festivals were established, at first in Victoria. The first of these was the Music Society of Victoria, which was established in Melbourne in 1861 and the Royal South Street Society Ballarat, which was established in 1879.
These are often, but not always, referred to as Eisteddfods. There are competitions, festivals, challenges and other events, all of which have the character of an Eisteddfod. A history of Australian Eisteddfods has been written by Cath Filmer-Davies – Eisteddfod – a Welsh Tradition in Australia, Seren Press, Brisbane 2001.